Long and short term effects of X-rays on charge coupled devices
EEV buried channel charge coupled devices (BC CDs) with technological variations have been studied with respect to their response to 70kVp X-rays. Process variations considered are the conventional BCCD, scintillator coated BCCDs (Gadox(Eu) and Csl(Tl)) and the inversion mode device. The work was made necessary by the use of these CCDs for dental X-ray imaging. Effects investigated include changes in device operating voltages and dark current. The dark current buildup has been characterised in terms of a prompt component seen immediately following irradiation, and a time dependent component which occurs gradually. A major part of this work was the determination of the location and concentration of the energy states responsible for this dark current buildup. Also a novel aspect of the work was the derivation of an expression describing the time dependent component as a function of time and temperature. Effects associated with the bias dependence of the BCCD have also been considered, with particular regard to the effect of a negative substrate bias, and the theoretical explanation has been developed. The findings of this work have demonstrated the suitability of these devices for the commercial application of imaging X-rays for dentistry.