The reception of Fedor Dostoevskii in Britain (1869-1935)
This thesis explores the participation of women in trade union activity at local level. The central question it addresses is why do women participate in trade unions at this level? It identifies the factors that shape and influence women's participation and, in particular, the role of gender. In addition the thesis critically exatnines the concept of women's interests. The methodological approach is that of a case study of women activists in the South Wales and Western division of the Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers (USDA W), and a principal case study of women activists in the South and West area of the Banking, Insurance and Finance Union (BIFU). In recent years there has been a growing body of research considering the role of women in trade unions. The main focus of these studies has been the barriers to women's participation. Where women's participation has been investigated the majority of studies have been concerned with women full time officers and 'senior' trade union leaders. Within trade union renewal debates women have been highlighted as one of the groups to target in recruitment campaigns. As such, it is appropriate to consider women's trade union participation at local level. The general literature suggests that people join and participate for traditional collective reasons. This proposition is critically examined. The findings present a model of trade union activity that differs significantly from typologies created to examine 'senior' women leaders. Equally, studies of women at local level which attach one ideological position to women's attitudes and behaviour are argued to fail to capture the diversity of views evident at local level. As such, the typology developed from this study places the WOlnen activists in four groups; the individualist, the collectivist, the carer and the equal rights representative. These groups reflect the context in which the women are situated and the varied interpretations of their activism. The findings suggest the problems of addressing equal opportunities through the union structures and raise, in particular, the difficulties of developing 'separatist' policies for women. Barriers to women's participation in trade unions remain significant for local level activism. The thesis suggests that trade union renewal strategies need to recognise the richness and diversity of attitudes and interests that women bring to the trade union movement.come across Dostoevskii the prophet, Dostoevskii the psychologist and so on. I also argue that the failure of intellectuals like Virginia Woolf and E. M. Forster to recognise the innovative force of Dostoevskii' s novels can be read in the light of their reticence to really break with a literary tradition, which they knew was on the verge of a definitive crisis. In the course of the thesis, it is shown how this reticence seriously undermines their project of renovation of the novelistic form. Thus, the final assumption of the thesis is that the difficulty that British intellectuals had in grasping the importance of Dostoevskii' s works for the development of the novelistic genre is partly due to the persistence of psychological criticism, which focused on authorial intentions rather than on the novels themselves, and partly to the attempt to inscribe Dostoevskii's novels within the Romantic or Victorian conventions of novel writing. In the final section of the Conclusion, I argue that Dostoevskii's experiments with the novelistic form situate his writings closer to the Modernist examples of novel writing than to the Romantic ones. A brief analysis of Stavrogin's Confession aims at clarifying this aspect. Finally, I stress that Western literary criticism has become more aware of the pioneering significance of Dostoevskii's form only in the Post-World War II period, while in Eastern Europe signals of recognition of the Innovative potential of Dostoevskii' s form emerge already by the early 1920s.