Metakaolin as a cement extender
The effect of 10% and 20% replacement metakaolin on a number of aspects of hydration chemistry and service performance of ordinary Portland cement pastes has been investigated. The analysis of expressed pore solutions has revealed that metakaolin-blended specimen pastes possess enhanced chloride binding capacities and reduced pore solution pH values when compared with their unblended counterparts. The implications of the observed changes in pore solution chemistry with respect to chloride induced reinforcement corrosion and the reduction in expansion associated with the alkali aggregate reaction are discussed. Differential thermal analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed in the analysis of the solid phase. It is suggested that hydrated gehlenite (a product of pozzolanic reaction) is operative in the removal and solid state binding of chloride ions from the pore solution of metakaolin-blended pastes. Diffusion coefficients obtained in a non-steady state chloride ion diffusion investigation have indicated that cement pastes containing 10% and 20% replacement metakaolin exhibit superior resistance to the penetration of chloride ions in comparison with those of plain OPC of the same water:cement ratio. The chloride induced corrosion behaviour of cement paste samples, of water:cement ratio 0.4, containing 0% , 10%, and 20% replacement metakaolin, has been monitored using the linear polarization technique. No significant corrosion of embedded mild steel was observed over a 200 day period.