Multinational enterprises in tourism : a case study of Turkey
The purpose of this study is to examine the significance of tourism multinationals - hotels, tour operators and airlines - as an external force on the development and sustainability of an international tourism industry in developing countries, and as applied to the case of Turkey. Two preconceived hypotheses are put forward for the investigation. First, significant international tourism development in developing countries is accompanied, sine qua non, by tourism multinationals' involvement, co-operation and willingness. Second, in order to take advantage of the role of tourism multinationals and the benefits they provide, and to balance the conflicting interests of host nations with those of tourism multinationals, developing countries, being a more dependent party, need to: (a) provide a stable and hospitable investment environment for foreign investors in tourism (b) design and implement policies regarding tourism multinationals in line with general and tourism development objectives; (c) co-operate, be flexible and be reconciled with tourism multinationals; (d) persuade tourism multinationals through negotiations and concessions to share the benefits of tourism development. To test the hypotheses, both theoretical discussions and empirical field research are used. The theoretical part concentrates on previous literature concerning the relations between international tourism and development; multinational enterprises and development; and tourism multinationals and international tourism development in developing countries. Empirical field research looks at the experience of Turkey with tourism multinationals in terms of their role, impacts and significance on tourism development.