A comparative study of the modernization of Muslim education in Egypt, Pakistan and Turkey since their national independence
This study takes Cyril E Black's definition of modernization to denote "the process by which historically evolved institutions are adapted to the rapidly changing functions that reflect the unprecedented increase in man's knowledge, permitting control over his environment that accompanied the scientific revolution", and, is an attempt at gauging auth an adaptation and the problems involved in it in the educational sphere of three typical Muslim countries. It follows Brian Holmes's "Problem Approach" by identifying a 'problem' and studying to it in comparative perspective. The study is divided into four parts. Part I is devoted to the 'intellectualization of the problem' in its 'ideal-typical' dimension. A rational construct of the normative order of modernity, defining the nature of modern man, modern society and modern knowledge, has been drawn in Chapter 2. A similar construct for the normative order of Islam has been simulated in Chapter 3, and. a comparison between the two drawn. Part II assesses the development of the gaps that developed between the normative and the institutional aspects of Muslim societies as a result of their introduction of modern institutions, and examines 'solutions' to eradicate them. Chapter 4 draws three parallel models of nationalisms that developed in these countries as ideological bases for modernization, that las Turkish secular nationalism; Erptian Arab nationalism and Pakistani Islamic nationalism. Chapter 5 traces their respective implications and commitments to the modernization of Muslim education. Part III attempts to assess the actual development of modernization in context along the lines of the 'proposed' policies. This has been done in three case studies, one on each country, in Chapters 6, 7 and 8 in a systems approach as input-output functions of the educational system. Part IV is devoted to the comparative analysis and conclusions. In Chapter 9 a comparative quantitative analysis of the performance of the three countries under study on the indexes of overall modernization, and then educational modernization, has been made to corroborate findings in the case studies. Chapter 10 draws broader conclusions for the prospects and obstacles involved in the modernization of Muslim societies and the role of education in the process.