Political liberalisation in Jordan : a study of the democratisation process, 1989-1993
This thesis is a study of the process of political liberalisation in Jordan, in the period from 1989 to 1993. In order to provide the necessary background for the analysis, the study provides a historical survey of representative institutions (or the lack of them) in Jordan, from its foundation as Transjordan in 1921 until 1989. The reasons for the initiation of the process of political liberalisation suggested are, the disengagement from the West Bank on July 31, 1988; the severe economic crisis faced by Jordan at the end of the 1980's; and the outbreak of the countrywide riots in April 1989.The process of political liberalisation began with the change in the Electoral Law which laid the basis for the 1989 election. Three inter-related strands in the period 1989- 1993 are analysed as to their impact of the process of political liberalisation. The first of these strands was constituted by the political reforms - including the abolition of both martial law and the anti-Communist law, the drafting of a new National Charter, and the promulgation of the Political Parties Law and the Press and Publication Law. The second was the development of the relationship between the executive and the legislative, in which the legislature gradually used its increased power to question, alter and implement legislation. The third was the strengthening of the civil institutions, such as trade unions, professional associations and registered political parties. The lead-up to the preparation for and the results of the 1993 election are then analysed to support the conclusion that the process of political liberalisation has reached the stage at which Jordan can be described as a democratic country, albeit without a full transfer of power. Nonetheless, the process of democratisation is still in transition and requires to be completed and consolidated.