Free radical methodology and approaches to the synthesis of roseophilin
The homolytic Brook rearrangement is discussed and homolytic fragmentations of epoxides and epoxysilane chemistry are reviewed. Thiyl radical induced isomerisation was performed on spiro alkenylepoxysilanes to generate novel alkenyl-α-trimethylsilylaldehydes rather than the products of radical Brook rearrangement. The trimethylsilylaldehydes were shown to isomerise on heating to silyldienol ethers and, via the addition of a Grignard reagent, to act as stereoselective vinyl cation equivalents. Attempts to extend the scope of the isomerisation to non-rigid systems met with failure. A review of the antibiotic Roseophilin is presented. Cycloaddition-fragmentation approaches to medium and large rings are reviewed as a prelude to our first route, the proposed Michael addition-retro-aldol fragmentation of the Diels-Alder adduct derived from isopropyl-cyclopentadiene and cyclodec- 2-yn-1-one. The novel ynone, synthesised via the intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation of 10-trimethylsilyl-9-decynoyl chloride, was found to isomerise readily to bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1(6)-en-2-one therefore the model Diels-Alder reaction with cyclopentadiene was effected in one-pot from the cyclisation precursor. Details of the attempted fragmentation of tricyclo[10.2.1.02,11]pentadeca-2(11),13-dien-3-one are then described but, due to inconclusive results, an alternative study was instigated. The use of free-radical macrocyclisations in the synthesis of large rings is reviewed with particular reference to the synthesis of natural products. Three strategies for the formation of a bicyclo[10.2.1]pentadecanone skeleton are reported, and subsequent model studies described. Cuprate additions to vinyl lactones and epoxides are discussed. The preferred strategy, involving a cycloalkyl tether between the radical donor and radical acceptor groups, was extended to a system which was derived from the addition of various cuprates to 2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-7-en-3-one The preparation of cuprates derived directly from 6-iodohexan-1-ol and 1-chloro-6-iodohexane is described. The trans- cuprate addition products were converted successfully to bicyclo[10.2.1]pentadec-12-en-3-one, and the cis- analogues, accessible through a novel regio- and stereoselective hydroboration-fragmentation reaction of 7- (6'-chlorohexyl)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-7-en-3-one, led to bicyclo[10.2.1]pentadec- 13-en-3-one. The successful cyclisations of model oximes, to form nitrones having the correct connectivity for the third ring of Roseophilin, are described. Cuprate additions to 6-(1'-methylethyl)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-7-en-3-one resulted in anti- attack; the cis- adducts were inaccessible via the above methodology but a few intermediates in the trans- series were prepared. Future routes and modifications to the methods developed are then discussed.