Amino acid, peptide and drug transport across monolayers of human intestinal (Caco-2) cells in vitro
The properties of Caco-2 monolayers were compared on aluminium oxide and nitrocellulose permeable-supports. On nitrocellulose, Caco-2 cells displayed a higher rate of taurocholic acid transport than those cultured on aluminium oxide inserts. In addition, Caco-2 cells grown on these two inserts were not comparable with respect to cell morphology, cell numbers and transepithelial electrical resistance. The low adsorption potential of the aluminium oxide inserts, particularly for high molecular weight or lipophilic ligands, offers a distinct advantage over nitrocellulose inserts for drug transport studies. The carrier-mediated uptake and transport of the imino acid (L-proline) and the acidic amino acids (L-aspartate and L-glutamate) have been studied. At pH7.4, L-proline uptake is mediated via an A-system carrier. Elevated uptake and transport under acidic conditions occurs by activation of a distinct carrier population. Acidic amino acid transport is mediated via a X-AG system. The flux of baclofen, CGP40116 andCGP40117 across Caco-2 monolayers was described by passive transport. The transport of three peptides, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, SQ29852 and cyclosporin were investigated. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone transport acrossCaco-2 monolayers was characterised by a minor saturable (carrier-mediated,approximately 25%) pathway, superimposed onto a major non-saturable (diffusional)pathway. SQ29852 uptake into Caco-2 monolayers is described by a major saturable mechanism (Km = 0.91 mM) superimposed onto a minor passive component. However, the initial-rate of SQ29852 transport is consistent with a passive transepithelial transport mechanism. These data highlight the possibility that itsbasolateral efflux is severely retarded such that the passive paracellular transportdictates the overall transepithelial transport characteristics. In addition, modelsuitable for investigating the transepithelial transport of cyclosporin A has been developed. A modification of the conventional Caco-2 model has been developed which has a calcium-free Ap donor-solution and a Bl receiver-solution containing the minimumcalcium concentration required to maintain monolayer integrity (100 μM). The influence of calcium and magnesium on the absorption of [14C]pamidronate was evaluated by comparing its transport across the conventional and minimum calciumCaco-2 models. Ap calcium and magnesium ions retard the Ap-to-Bl flux of pamidronate across Caco-2 monolayers. The effect of self-emulsifying oleic acid-Tween 80 formulations on Caco-2monolayer integrity has been investigated. Oleic acid-Tween 80 (1 0:1) formulations produced a dose-dependent disruption of Caco-2 monolayer integrity. This disruption was related to the oleic acid content of the formulation.