A cross-situational and a cross-cultural examination of shyness using aggregation and act frequency approaches in Britain and Kuwait
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine cross-situational consistency and cultural similarities and differences in shyness as a personality trait assessed through aggregation methods and act frequency methods. The first chapter describes our first aim of the investigation using the aggregation approach as a behavioural technique for studying the cross-situational consistency of personality. This involves comparison of the correlation of single ratings with the aggregate of other ratings for the shyness trait which results in higher agreement between self-other ratings across the two cultures. The second aim was to examine the existence of cultural and sex differences. The results offered support for the existence of cultural differences across the shyness measures. However, the data showed inconsistent sex differences across cultures. In the second chapter, we have examined another behavioural technique or another formal aggregation in studying the cross-situational and the cross-cultural examination of shyness assessed through act frequency methods which revealed substantial differences between the two cultures in the performance of act categories. In the present study, 100 acts for each pole of shyness dimension were generated through nomination procedures separately for each culture. The prototypicality of the shyness and unshyness acts for the respective poles of the dimension was judged by expert and college students panel. Substantial agreement in these ratings exists within and between poles. In this manner, the internal structure of the act category was specified. In the main study the validities of these scales (act categories) were investigated using the multiple act criterion based on the most prototypical acts. These acts were predicted with greater success than multiple act criterion based on the least prototypical acts in each acts category for both cultures by personality scales.