A study of academic achievement, socioeconomic status, intelligence, gender and their relations to general and academic self-concept of twelfth grade students in the United Arab Emirates
This study is based on a multifaceted model of self-concept and aimed to explore the intricacies of the multidimensional nature of self-concept and its relationship to students' academic achievement, socioeconomic status and their intelligence. Sex differences in various facets were also investigated as a major concern of this study. The subjects of this study were 157 boys and 177 girls, drawn from 12th Grade students from five educational zones in the United Arab Emirates. Three instruments were used to assess students' self-concept. The Self-Description Questonnaire (SDQ) was utilised to assess students' self-concept of Arabic language, chemistry, mathematics, peer relations, parent relations, physical ability and physical appearance. The Brokeover Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale (SCAA) was administered to assess students' self-concept of general academic ability. Students' general self-concept was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The Raven Progressive Matrix Test assessed students' general IQ and Socioeconomic Status (SES), measured by the sum of four demographic variables related to parents' education, occupation, housing and income. Students' achievement level was assessed by the mid-term examination grades in Arabic language, mathematics and chemistry. The major statistical tools used were independent t-test, simple correlation, partial regression, stepwise regression and canonical correlation analysis. The findings of this study reveal that girls had higher self-concept of mathematics, chemistry, general academic ability and physical appearance and boys had higher self-concept of physical ability. No sex differences, however, were recorded in the areas of Arabic language, parent relations, peer relations and general self-concept. Furthermore, a significant low correlation was observed between IQ and some dimensions of selfconcept (mathematics, general and general academic ability). A weak association was found between students' socioeconomic status and their general and academic selfconcepts. The relationships between self-concept dimensions and each of IQ and SES were different for boys and girls. Students' achievement scores in mathematics and chemistry were strongly correlated with their self-concept in corresponding areas, but showed almost no correlatation with their non-academic self-concepts. A few recommendations are forwarded for further study and some implications are outlined at the end of this thesis.