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Title: X-ray intensity and spectrum : theoretical deduction and experimental measurements
Author: Tan, Dagang
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 1993
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Formulas for predicting the absolute X-ray intensity spectra from both Bremsstrahlung and K characteristic X-rays have been developed. These formulas cover a wide range of target materials and target geometry conditions (incident and emission angle) and tube voltage range from 20 to 200kV. For the Bremsstrahlung Intensity Spectrum:vskip 3.5cm Where U tube voltage(kV); J tube current(mA); n&61 1.6; P &61 1.08x10-6(A/Z2.5;k{s} &61 0.32; k &61 K{m}Z2/A; K = k3/511. The theoretical value of K{m} is 4.73x1014keV/ For a Fluency with a Total Filtration of d{Al} g/cm2 Al: F(E)dE = I(E)E{-1}e{-μAldAl}dEphotons/ This formula can be used at various incident angles (θi) andemission anglesfor different target material (A, Z, μ) for U from 20-200kV. The angular distribution f(θ) (defined = 1 when θ = 90^o and varies with U) requires definition by experimental measurements. According to this formula the Photon Fluency spectra at different tube voltages, different target angles and different emission directions are calculated and illustrated as spectral curves. There is a good agreement between the formula results and spectra measured by other authors. For K-Characteristic X-ray fluency:vskip 1.5cm Where n&61 1.61; P &61 1.08x10^-6(A/Z)^2.5; k is a factor of 1.0-2.5, which represents the effective depth of K photo production and increases with Z; θ{i} and θ_{r} the electron incident and X-ray emission angles; Ψ(θ_{i}) &61 cos(7.89x10^-4θ2.6_i) an empirical angle function; N(E_{i}) the fluency of E_{i} characteristic X rays per mAs per solid angle; E_{k} the binding energy of the K sell; F_k the efficiency constant depends on Z; f(E_{i} the fractional emission of the E_{i} characteristic X rays; J the tube current; U the tube voltage. The recommended value of F_Kα, based on measured data, is 3.8-4.7x10^11photon/ for values of Z from 25 to 50. The relationship between the target attentuation factor and different target materials, angles and voltages are discussed. This formula can be used at much wider situations and has good agreement with the measured data.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: X-rays for medical diagnosis Biomedical engineering Biochemical engineering Biophysics Atoms Molecules