Advances in crosshole seismic reflection processing
In recent years there have been significant advances in the acquisition and processing of crosshole seismic reflection data, and the method has been shown to be a high resolution imaging technique. However, the fidelity of the final images produced by this technique needs to be considered carefully to avoid incorrect interpretation. This thesis concerns the imaging capability of crosshole surveys, as well as advances made in processing techniques for application to crosshole seismic reflection surveys. In a migrated seismic section, a meaningful image is only obtained if a range of dips around the local structural dip is sampled at each image point. For crosshole seismic reflection surveys, the distribution of dips sampled at an image point is controlled principally by the survey geometry, including source and receiver array lengths and their element spacings. By considering the dips sampled, the imaging capability of crosshole reflection surveying is discussed, with suggestions as to how to ensure optimal imaging of the target zone. To overcome problems encountered in applying standard processing procedures, two new processing techniques are presented which enhance the imaging potential of crosshole reflection seismics. Generalised Berryhill migration has been developed as a full generalised Kirchhoff migration to include the near-field term, with the aim of improving image accuracy close to the source and receiver arrays. 3-D f-k-k filtering is an improved method of wavefield separation for crosshole seismic data. Finally, the results of processing three types of dataset are presented. One is from a site in the Groningen gas field, another was acquired through a model interrogated at ultrasonic frequencies in a water tank, and the third type was acquired using coal exploration boreholes in Yorkshire. The results demonstrate the imaging capability of the crosshole reflection method, and the success of the two new processing schemes.