Crustal structure of the Baltic shield beneath the Sea of Bothnia; BABEL line 6
As part of the 1989 BABEL project, Durham University recorded large quantities of high resolution wide-angle data from six deep seismic lines shot in the Gulf of Bothnia. Fifteen analogue and three digital seismic recording stations were used, located in Sweden around the Sea of Bothnia. The wide-angle data is of very high quality due to the low noise and good transmission of seismic energy through the cratonic crust of the Baltic Shield. BABEL line 6 is a 240 km long, north-south profile in the western half of the Sea of Bothnia that runs almost parallel to several deep seismic refraction profiles previously acquired in Sweden and Finland. A crustal model has been developed for this line from P- and S-wave wide-angle data recorded at five of the online recording stations and from the normal-incidence data. This model has been generated by raytracing methods using a modified version of the BEAMS? gaussian beam package. Wide-angle arrivals are interpreted as diving rays and wide-angle reflections and as 'diffraction-type' arrivals from offsets on reflecting boundaries. The wide-angle reflections appear to correspond to the boundaries between high and low reflectivity zones in the normal-incidence data. The 'diffraction-type' arrivals appear to be related to surface features such as the Ljusnan tectonic zone and the Aranda rift. There is no evidence for a Moho trench similar to those seen on neighbouring profiles. Several high velocity layers are required in the model. These may be the related to the numerous post-orogenic intrusions that have occurred in the Svecofennian region of the Baltic Shield. Traditional approaches to modelling wide-angle data assume that the crust consists of a series of extensive, quasi-horizontal, layers. There are several problems with this approach. In particular it does not explain the patchy reflectivity seen in the normal-incidence data or the rapid variation in amplitude seen along wide-angle arrivals in high resolution data sets. Apparently continuous wide-angle arrivals may be generated from a series of short length reflectors. These show an amplitude variation similar to that seen in the experimental data. This suggests that wide-angle arrivals may arise from the assemblages of reflectors that are often imaged on normal-incidence data.