Lydia : a cultural and social history
A date-chart of significant periods and events from the third millennium BC to the seventh century AD prefaces the work. The text's chronological span runs from the heyday of the Mermnad kingdom to that of the Roman Empire, and the primary emphasis is on giving a narrative of the country's development under Greek influence: a wide range of literary and archaeological material is employed to this end. The thesis is divided into six parts: the first deals with geographical notices in such authors as Strabo and Pliny; the second chronicles the Mermnad period, between the seventh and sixth centuries, with particular reference to contacts with the Ionian Greeks; the third describes Lydian experiences during the ensuing period of Persian hegemony, between the sixth and fourth centuries; the fourth, covering the sequel to Alexander's takeover, focusses on the culminating stages of Hellenization, discussing Sardis' Hellenistic period and the Seleukid and Attalid foundations in the countryside. The fifth part discusses the village communities, over an extended period as the topic warrants: inscriptions of the Roman period predominate, and are incorporated on the grounds that a broader panorama is thereby achieved, and that the patterns delineated will have changed only slowly and are anyway of relevance for the Hellenized country's continuing history. The sixth part, on religion native and foreign, deals with the relevant inscriptions and literature, charting the progressive influence of Persian and Greek cult but also the surviving Anatolian elements. Appendices follow on the evidence for the process of change in language use from Lydian to Greek, on Maionia and the Heraklidai, and on Mycenaean contacts, together with a catalogue of the numismatic sources for religious history. Maps and sketch-plans accompany the text at appropriate points.