The effect of principal-teacher interaction in school effectiveness.
The study tested Fiedler's contingency model of
leadership effectiveness in primary schools in Cyprus
by examining the relationship between principal-teacher
interaction and school effectiveness as indicated by
student achievement and teacher satisfaction. Sex,
leadership style, and situational control were the
independent variables and student achievement and teacher
satisfaction were the dependent variables.
The contingency model postulates that if the
leader's style and situational control are adequately
matched, then organizational effectiveness is attained.
In particular, the model postulates that high-LPC
(relationship-oriented) leaders perform better in
situations of moderate control, while low-LPC (taskoriented)
leaders perform better in situations of high
or low control.
On the basis of the theory, the following
hypotheses of the study were predicted:
1. The nature of the performance of teachers is
generally contingent upon the appropriate
matching of the principal'b leadership style and
the situational control.2. Student~' achievement is generally contingent
upon the appropriate matching of the principal's
leadership style and the degree to which the
situation provides the principal the necessary
influence over his or her work group members.
3. High-LPC principals perform better than low-LPC
principals in moderate situations.
4. Low-LPC principals perform better than high-LPC
principal~ in highly favorable situations.
5. Low-LPC principals perform better than high-LPC
principals in relatively unfavorable situations.
6. The directions of the correlational signs between
principals' leadership style (LPC scores) and
group effectiveness (students' achievement
scores) in the situational octants agree with
A II!ultiple interactive instrument, consisting of
the Principal Questionnaire and the Teacher Questionnaire,
was utilized to assess respectively (1) the
principals' style and their perceptions of their leadermember
relations, the task structure, and their position
power, and (2) tllC teachers' sati sfaction wi th their job
by determining their perceptions of work, pay, promotions,
supervision, and coworkers. ~chool outcomes were measured by (1) a ~pecial achievement test in Mathematics
taken in Cyprus during the school year 1984-1985 and (2)
the teachers's level of cohesion and satisfaction.
The sample of the study consistec of thirty-five
primary school principals in the Limassol District, Cyprus,
ninety-two teachers of the third and fourth grades in
these schools, and 910 third and fourth grade students
taught by the se teachers.
The study was conducted in three phases: in the
first phase, leadership style and data relative to leadermember
relations, task structure, and position power was
obtained from participating principals; in the second
phase, data relative to satisfaction of teachers with the
job was obtained frn1l1 participating teachers; and in the
third phase, data relative to achievement in Mathematics
was obtained from students of third and fourth grades.
The data collected was analysed by four statistical
designs: (1) the two-way analysis of variance, (2) the
stepwise multiple regression, (3) the t test, and (4)
the simple correlation.
The findin~s of tne study were as follows:
1. Teachers tend to perform better under high-LPC
principals who have a moderate situational
control rather than high situational control,
or under low-LPC principals who have a high ~ituational control rather than moderate situat
2. Students tend to achieve better results under
high-LPC principals who possess moderate situational
control rather than high situational
control, or under low-LPC principals who possess
high situational control rather than moderate
3. High-LPC principal s perform better in school
situations with moderate control.
4. Low-LPC principal s perform be st in school si tuations
with high control.
5. The directions of the correlational signs between
principals' leadership style and group performance
in the situational octants agree with Fiedler's.
Thus, there is a curvilinear relationship between
the dependent and independent variables of the
The findings provide support for Fiedler's contingency
model of leadership effectiveness. However, the
study failed to test all the cells of the model due to
lack of pertinent data. In particular, the four poor leCA