A systematic approach to appraisal/evaluation of civil engineering projects, with special emphasis on technology
This study sets out to develop an appraisal/evaluation methodology for. Civil Engineering Projects, that incorporates technological considerations into this decisionmaking process. A secondary objective is the need to ensure that this methodology is flexible, comprehensive and integrated. As a fIrst step, a background is provided to the concept of technology. This reveals two diverging schools of thought namely, 'Appropriate technology' and the 'Technological flX' schools in relation to the future role of technology. This study shows clearly that both these schools of thought demand a clear understanding of the role of technology in human development. Accordingly, the next portion of the work concentrates on a study of the concepts of 'development' and 'technological development'. Detailed analysis of these two stages of the work, shows that the required appraisa1/eva~uation methodology, must include for a human and global context, be multi-disciplinary in approach, and consider the existing technological state and mode of transmission of new technology to the relevant community. A study and analysis of existing methods shows that, in evolving from a conventional cost/benefit analysis (ellA) to 'impact' methodologies and currently, 'integrated' approaches, the process of appraisal/evaluation has become increasingly broader in context. Drawing mainly on these earlier works, a methodology of appraisal/evaluation has been developed which attempts to meet the requirements described above, and which is a logical extension of the existing methods and trends. Adopting a systematic approach, involving the application of systems analysis and dynamic programming, and based on multi-level matrix methods, this methodology allows for the incorporation of any number of disciplines, interactions between different disciplines and varying levels of analytical detail into the appraisal/evaluation process. The proposed appraisal/evaluation methodology is validated by applying it to a case study of a civil engineering project (a water supply scheme for a major city in a developing country). The practical viability of the proposed method is illustrated clearly by this case study application. It is concluded that the proposed methodology, though tediously long, provides greater insight to the costs and benefits involved, forces the appraiser to consider many of the aspects ignored in the actual appraisal of the project, highlights the limitations imposed by lacking or insufficient data and emphasises the fragmentary nature of the existing appraisal methods. Finally recommendations are made which relate to the refinement of the proposed methodology, particularly in the data handling and output formatting areas. Some suggestions are also made in this final chapter, on possible future directions in this field of study.