Human and machine representations of knowledge
Four existing knowledge-representations for the computat1on of similar functions in a chess endgame were implemented on the same computer in the same language. They are compared w1th respect to efficiency regarding time-space requirements. Three of these programs were then paraphrased into English and all four were studied for their feasibility as 'open book' advice texts for the human beginner in chess. A formally verified set of rules was also tested for its suitability as an advice text. The possible effectiveness of these advice texts in 'closed book' form is considered. The above experiments comprise a case study of a phenomenon known as the "human window". This phenomenon motivated an analysis of four documented instances of mismatch between human and machine representations. These are: Three Mile Island II Air Traffic Control, III NORAD Military Computer System, IV The Hoogoven Royal Dutch Steel automation failure.