Surface acoustic wave devices with low loss and high frequency operation
This thesis describes an industrial research project carried out in collaboration with STC Components, Harlow, Essex. Technical and market trends in the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are reviewed. As a result, three areas not previously addressed by STC were identified: lower insertion loss designs, higher operating frequencies and improved temperature dependent stability. A review of the temperature performance of alternative lower insertion loss designs,shows that greater use could be made of the on-site quartz growing plant. Data is presented for quartz cuts in the ST-AT range. This data is used to modify the temperature performance of a SAW filter. Several recently identified quartz orientations have been tested. These are SST, LST and X33. Problems associated with each cut are described and devices demonstrated. LST quartz, although sensitive to accuracy of cut, is shown to have an improved temperature coefficient over the normal ST orientation. Results show that its use is restricted due to insertion loss variations with temperature. Effects associated with split-finger transducers on LST-quartz are described. Two low-loss options are studied, coupled resonator filters for very narrow bandwidth applications and single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDT) for fractional bandwidths up to about 1%. Both designs can be implemented with one quarter wavelength transducer geometries at operating frequencies up to 1GHz. The SPUDT design utilised an existing impulse response model to provide analysis of ladder or rung transducers. A coupled resonator filter at 400MHz is demonstrated with a matched insertion loss of less than 3.5dB and bandwidth of 0.05%. A SPUDT device is designed as a re-timing filter for timing extraction in a long haul PCM transmission system. Filters operating at 565MHz are demonstrated with insertion losses of less than 6dB. This basic SPUDT design is extended to a maximally distributed version and demonstrated at 450MHz with 9.8dB insertion loss.