The boundary lubricated friction and wear of low alloy steel
Pin on disc wear machines were used to study the boundary lubricated friction and wear of AISI 52100 steel sliding partners. Boundary conditions were obtained by using speed and load combinations which resulted in friction coefficients in excess of 0.1. Lubrication was achieved using zero, 15 and 1000 ppm concentrations of an organic dimeric acid additive in a hydrocarbon base stock. Experiments were performed for sliding speeds of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 m/s for a range of loads up to 220 N. Wear rate, frictional force and pin temperature were continually monitored throughout tests and where possible complementary methods of measurement were used to improve accuracy. A number of analytical techniques were used to examine wear surfaces, debris and lubricants, namely: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy, Back scattered Electron Detection (BSED) and several metallographic techniques. Friction forces and wear rates were found to vary linearly with load for any given combination of speed and additive concentration. The additive itself was found to act as a surface oxidation inhibitor and as a lubricity enhancer, particularly in the case of the higher (1000 ppm) concentration. Wear was found to be due to a mild oxidational mechanism at low additive concentrations and a more severe metallic mechanism at higher concentrations with evidence of metallic delamination in the latter case. Scuffing loads were found to increase with increasing additive concentration and decrease with increasing speed as would be predicted by classical models of additive behaviour as an organo-metallic soap film. Heat flow considerations tended to suggest that surface temperature was not the overriding controlling factor in oxidational wear and a model is proposed which suggests oxygen concentration in the lubricant is the controlling factor in oxide growth and wear.