The deregulation of television and policies for new media development : a comparative study of the United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg and the broadcasting policy of the European Community during 1981-86
This study describes and assesses the problems associated with the development of the new broadcasting media in the United Kingdom, France and Luxembourg in 1981-1986. It also examines the implications associated with the new broadcasting media in both the audiovisual landscape and the public policies concerning broadcasting. It describes and analyses the audiovisual policy initiated by the Commission of the European Community. This study believes that the impact of the the new broadcasting media on the audiovisual environment has been mostly indirect because of their very slow development. In all three countries, the development of the new broadcasting media has taken on an industrial dimension in terms of assisting the restructuring of their mature economies. The strongest impression to emerge from this project is a profound confusion and uncertainty about the media developments. A situation including an increased number of actors, involved both in conventional and new broadcasting media adversely influenced the latter's development. Even though the United Kingdom and France followed a different policy path, the outcome was the same: small growth. While France followed a state-led policy, the United Kingdom favoured private initiative and the market forces. This project also stresses that although economic pressures and challenges have been a driving force for policy adjustment, technology and markets do not themselves dictate specific and institutional arrangements. Additionally, it describes the state policy on broadcasting in Luxembourg and the anxiety of its politicians to maintain the Grand Duchy's traditional role as the location for international broadcasting. Finally, the European Community's broadcasting policy is discussed in terms of another attempt to harmonise diversified national legislations for the satellite age of television and 1992's Single Market.