Chemical modification of polymers.
Based on the knowledge of PVC degradation and stabilisation, chemical modifications were imposed on degraded PVC and raw PVC with the aim of obtaining non-migrating additives. The modifications were carried out mainly in the presence of dibutyl maleate (DBM), and the resulting polymer contained dibutyl maleic residues. Such modifications result in a polymer which contain substantive additives which resist migration under aggressive environments. Previous studies have shown that stable nitroxyl radicals function as stabilisers in polymer during processing (e.g. PP, PVC) by deactivating a large number of kinetic chains via a redox process whereby the concentrations of the nitroxyl and its reduced form, the hydroxylamine, fluctuate reciprocally and rhythmically. In order to understand the major reactions involved in such systems, a simulation method was used which resulted in a mathematical model and some rate constants, explaining the kinetic behaviour exhibited by such system. In the process of forming a suitable model, two nonlinear oscillators were proposed, which could be of interest in the study of nonlinear phenomenon because of their chaotic behaviour.