Stabilisation of Polypropylene using polymer-bound antioxidants
A variety of hindered phenol and hindered piperidine antioxidants containing vinyl or vinylidine functional groups have been synthesised and some of these were successfully bound to Polypropylene backbone during processing operations in presence of a radical generator. Up to 20% concentrates were prepared using this technique. Commercially acceptable concentrates (MASTERBATCHES) can only be prepared with antioxidants that are only weakly chain breaking such as hindered piperidines. One of the antioxidants, AATP was found to polymrise as well as bind to Polypropylene. Bound antioxidants were found to be resistant to such channels of physical loss as solvent extraction. Temperature and concentration of the additive and radical generator were found to be important parameters in the preparation of the concentrates. The stabilising efficiences of the diluted bound antioxidants alone, and in combination (synergistic) with other antioxidants have been evaluated. Results of both thermal and photo-oxidative stabilities of the bound samples in Polypropylene show that the restriction on free mobility of the bound antioxidants in the polymer has virtually no effect on its stabilising efficiency. Bound AATP was found to generate nitroxyl radicals during the course of its stabilising activities, and in combination with a small amount of Irganox 1076, it was shown to be highly synergistic thermally. A mechanism of catalytic phenol regeneration by the resultant piperidine hydroxylamine was proposed. Although the mechanical properties of the masterbatches were affected by the transformation, this was not found to be carried over to the diluted samples. This work has shown that bound concentrates can be effectively prepared in saturated polymers for subsequent dilution to normal concentrates used in commercial stabilisation.