Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete panels and infilled frames under monotonic and cyclic loading : structures under plane stress loading are analysed up to and beyond the peak load : non-linear material properties including cracking, crushing and the non-linear behaviour at the interface of members are considered
A non-linear finite element program to simulate the behaviour of infilled frames and plane stress reinforced concrete members under the action of monotonic and cyclic loading has been developed. Steel is modelled as a strain hardening plastic material, and in the concrete model cracking, yielding and crushing are considered. The separation, sliding, and opening and closing of initial gaps at the interfaces between the frame and the infill panels are accounted for by adjusting the properties of interface elements. The non-linear equations of equilibrium are solved using an incremental-iterative technique performed under load or displacement control. The iterative techniques use the standard and modified Newton-Raphson method or the secant Newton method. An automatic load incrementation scheme, line searches, and restart facilities are included. The capabilities of the program have been examined and demonstrated by analysing five reinforced concrete panels, a deep beam, a shear wall, and eight infilled frames. The accuracy of the analytical results was assessed by comparing them with the experimental results and those obtained analytically by other workers and shown to be good. A study of the effects of some material and numerical parameters on the results of analyses of reinforced concrete deep beam has been carried out. Two techniques have been proposed and used to overcome numerical problems associated with local strain concentrations which occur with the displacement control, when path dependent incremental iterative procedures are used for inelastic materials. The displacement control provided with these modifications has been shown to be more efficient than the load control.