Livestock production and food security in a changing socio-cultural environment due to involuntary relocation of agro-pastoralists into semi-arid areas of Makueni District, Kenya
The literature on Human Resettlement and the socio-economic adjustment processes involved has been reviewed with special reference to planned and unplanned relocation and how models of social change apply to them. As a result of the findings of this study the investigator has concluded it by developing a unique 5-Step Socio-Economic Chan2e Model based on the unplanned involuntary relocation of agro-pastoralists within the semi-arid areas of Kenya. A study of the Kenyan resettlement at Muuni was carried out over two growing seasons in 1997/98. Detailed information on the social structure prevailing and of the social and economic practices was gathered. This information was supplemented by data recorded on the agricultural activities of a sample of 30 fanning households, each having 10 acres of land. This information was supplemented by data on rainfall and soil type. Income from non-farming activities was also gathered. Data has been summarised and analysed and results discussed in the light of previous findings. Among the principal findings were: • That the role livestock production plays in socio-economic processes of change in semi-arid areas of Malcueni District became secondary or even tertiary following change of land tenureship by relocating agro-pastoralists from areas of communal use of forage and water resources to small-scale private land holding areas. • That failure to plan the involuntary relocation of the approx. 1000 households involved had placed them in difficult circumstances. • Hardship was the result due to failing to appreciate the inadequate potential of the limited private areas allocated and/or to provide a sufficient water supply in the resettlement scheme. • That failure to plan for suitable livestock disease control measures, medical care and education in the area imposed additional burdens on the people. • That the people proved capable of alleviating their conditions and meeting short-term needs by undertaking a range of non-farming activities and by collaborating at critical times in the farming and other social cycles. • That the delayed issuance of land title deeds to the farming households placed the families in an inequitable position and restricted their right of free movement.