Analyticity and scaling in quantum field theory
The theory describing the scaling properties of quantum field theory is introduced. The symmetry principles behind scale and conformal transformations are reviewed together with the renormalisation group. A method for improving perturbative calculations of physical quantities in the infra-red limit is developed using general analyticity properties valid for all unitary quantum field theories. The infra-red limit of a physical quantity is shown to equal the limiting value of the Borel transform in a complex scale parameter, where the order of the Borel transform is related to the domain of analyticity. It is shown how this general result can be used to improve perturbative calculations in the infra-red limit. First, the infra-red central charge of a perturbed conformal field theory is considered, and for the unitary minimal models perturbed by ɸ(1,3) the developed approximation is shown to be very close to the exact results by improving only a one loop perturbation. The other example is the infra-red limit of the critical exponents of x(^4) theory in three dimensions, where our approximation is within the limits of other approximations. The exact renormalisation group equation is studied for a theory with exponential interactions and a background charge. It is shown how to incorporate the background charge, and using the operator product expansion together with the equivalence between the quantum group restricted sine-Gordon model and the unitary minimal models perturbed by ɸ(1,3), the equation obtained is argued to describe the flow between unitary minimal models. Finally, a semi-classical approximation of the low energy limit of a bosonic membrane is studied where the action is taken to be the world-volume together with an Einstein-Hilbert term. A solution to the linearized equations of motion is determined describing a membrane oscillating around a flat torus.