Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.324682
Title: Measurement of gas bubbles in a vertical water column using optical tomography
Author: Ibrahim, Sallehuddin
ISNI:       0000 0001 3586 0455
Awarding Body: Sheffield Hallam University
Current Institution: Sheffield Hallam University
Date of Award: 2000
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Abstract:
This thesis presents an investigation into the application of optical fibre sensors to a tomographic imaging system for use with gas/water mixtures. Several sensing techniques for measurement of two component flow using non-intrusive techniques are discussed and their relevance to tomographic applications considered. Optical systems are shown to be worthy of investigation. The interaction between a collimated beam of light and a spherical bubble is described. Modelling of different arrangements of projections of optical sensing arrays is carried out to predict the expected sensor output voltage profiles due to different flow regimes represented by four models. The four flow models investigated are: a single pixel flow, two pixels flow, half flow and full flow models. The response of the sensors is based on three models: optical path length, optical attenuation and a combination of optical attenuation model and signal conditioning. In the optical path length model, opaque solids or small bubbles, which are conveyed, may totally or partially interrupt the optical beams within the sensing volume. In the optical attenuation model, the Lambert-Beer's Law is applied to model optical attenuation due to the different optical densities of the fluids being conveyed. The combination of optical attenuation model and signal conditioning is designed to improve the visual contrast of the tomograms compared with those based on the optical attenuation model. Layergram back-projection (LYGBP) is used to reconstruct the image. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm combining knowledge of sensors reading zero flow with LYGBP is tested and shown to improve the image reconstruction. The combination of a two orthogonal and two rectilinear projections system based on optical fibres is used to obtain the concentration profiles and velocity of gas bubbles in a vertical column. The optical fibre lens is modelled to determine the relationships between fibre parameters and collimation of light into the receiver circuit. Modelling of the flow pipe is also carried out to investigate which method of mounting the fibres minimises refraction of the collimated light entering the pipe and the measurement cross-section. The preparation of the ends of the optical fibre and design of the electronics, which process the tomographic data, are described. Concentration profiles obtained from experiments on small bubbles and large bubbles flowing in a hydraulic conveyor are presented. Concentration profiles are generated using the hybrid reconstruction algorithm. The optical tomographic system is shown to be sensitive to small bubbles in water of diameter 1-10 mm and volumetric flow rates up to 1 1/min, and large bubbles in water of diameter 15-20 mm and volumetric flow rates up to 3 1/min. Velocity measurements are obtained directly from cross correlation of upstream and downstream sensors' signals as well as from upstream and downstream pixel concentration values. Suggestions for further work on optical tomographic measurements are made.
Supervisor: Green, Bob ; Dutton, Ken ; Ruzairi, Abdul Rahim Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.324682  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Optical fibre sensors; Layergram back projection
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