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Title: Inter-relationship between ultraviolet, ozone and hexavalent chromium in metal inert gas (MIG) welding process.
Author: Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3426 0984
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 1995
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Welding is a common metal fabrication process within industry. Epidemiology suggests that welders as an occupational group demonstrate slight, but significant, increased risks of respiratory ill-health. This might be expected as welding processes often present high levels of occupational exposure to oxidising gasses and weld fumes which are often inadequately controlled through local exhaust ventilation or personal respiratory protection because of high costs and the burden of worker participation. Fundamental control strategies of occupational hygiene encourage development and use of engineering controls as the best means to optimally control occupational exposure. However, engineering controls have not yet been successfully developed to control occupational exposure to welding fume and gases. This thesis investigates the interrelationships between ultra-violet radiation (UV). ozone (0:;). and hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in metal inert gas (MIG) welding in order to investigate possible methods to control occupational exposure to welding fume and gases by engineering contro!' Past studies of occupational ill-health in welders are reviewed as is the currently understanding of the physico-chemical principles by which the various components of welding fume evolves. Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanisms of formation of UV, 0 3 and CrVI formation from which a number of possible control strategies were developed further. Among these results emerge two process modifications with exciting potential to reduce two toxic components. 0, and CrVI , in stainless steel welding fume and gas. The addition of trace amounts of Zinc to chromium containing steel wires virtually eliminates all 0, and significantly reduces hexavalent chromium within the weld plume. As Zn is a volatile metal, it does not contaminate weld quality but increases the zinc oxide le\els in the fume slightly. A second method developed in this thesis involves the addition of a dual shield gas shroud containing reducing gases such as C2H .. to remove 0, and consequently. reduce Cr(VI) levels. Preliminary results suggest that these methods can be used separately. or in combination, to provide a practical means of controlling occupational exposure to two of the more toxic components of welding fume and gases. This thesis describes in details the experiments and results culminating in successful preliminary development of engineering controls for 0 3 and CrVI through process modification of the stainless steel MIG welding process. Further work for further development of these methods is outlined and funding to extend this area of applied research is being actively pursued with the support of major UK industry.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Occupational health hazards; Arc; Fumes