The European cultural heritage : community and national legislation for heritage management in the European Union
The aim of this research is the consideration of the cultural heritage policies of European institutions (the European Union and the Council of Europe) and the impact of such policies on the national heritage policy of two member States (Greece and Italy). The analysis focuses mainly on the national and supra-national heritage legislation. The EU by means of policies and laws has gradually emerged as an important factor in the field of national heritage management. The impact of the EU in the fields of heritage terminology and legislation is a fact. New concepts concerning things 'national' are being directly 'imported' from the EU to its member States. The use of heritage in the political arena has a long history in nation States, with regard to issues of identity. By taking this one step further, the EU aims to construct a 'European' identity which will eventually replace the different 'national' ones. A historical narrative proves the logic behind EU action. The cultural heritage has been used by the EU throughout the years for a variety of political and economic purposes. The amendment of national laws and the introduction of EU concepts into national heritage law are results of an imposed change, not of legal evolution. The comparison of the two EU member States emphasises the complexity of issues involved in both the national and supra¬ national level. The conclusions aspire to arouse awareness of the powers that EU enjoys over national heritage legislation. The thesis also endeavours to highlight the power of law to create and construct public attitude towards the heritage, enhancing or denying claims for identity. It assesses the political will behind legal acts and policies with regard to the heritage. It addresses the attempt made by European institutions to create 'uniformity' in both laws and concepts related to heritage in a Europe of diverse heritages.