Corrosion inhibitors for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete
Four corrosion inhibitors namely sodium nitrite, sodium monofluorophosphate, ethanolamine and an alkanolamine-based mixture were studied by immersing mild steel bars for 42 days in model electrolytes of varied pH and chloride concentration which were intended to simulate the pore solution phase present within carbonated and/or chloride-contaminated concrete. Site trials were carried out on sodium monofluorophosphate and the alkanolamine-based inhibitor to study their depth of penetration into concrete. The influence of various carbonating atmospheres on the pore solution chemistry and microstructure of hydrated cement paste was investigated. Physical realkalisation of carbonated cement paste and a calcium nitrite-based corrosion rehabilitation system for chloride-contaminated cement paste were investigated by monitoring ionic transport within the pore solution phase of laboratory specimens. The main findings were as follows: 1,Sodium nitrite, sodium monofluorophosphate, ethanolamine and the alkanolamine-based mixture all behaved as passivating anodic inhibitors of steel corrosion in air-saturated aqueous solutions of varied pH and chloride concentration. 2,Sodium monofluorophosphate failed to penetrate significantly into partially carbonated site concrete when applied as recommended by the supplier. Phosphate and fluoride penetrated 5mm into partially carbonated site concrete treated with sodium monofluorophosphate. 3,The ethanolamine component of the alkanolamine-based inhibitor was found to have penetrated significant depths into partially carbonated site concrete. 4,Carbonating hydrated cement paste over saturated solutions of sodium nitrite resulted in significant concentrations of nitrite in the pore solution of the carbonated paste. Saturated solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sodium dichromate were investigated and identified as alternatives for controlling the relative humidity of the carbonating environment. 5,Hardened carbonated cement paste can by physically realkalised to a limited extent due to the diffusion of hydroxyl ions under saturated conditions. A substantial proportion of the hydroxyl ions that diffused into the carbonated cement paste however, became bound into the cement matrix. Hydroxyl ion concentrations remained below 5mmol/l within the pore solution of the realkalised cement paste. 6, Nitrite ions penetrated significant distances by diffusion within the pore solution of saturated uncarbonated hydrated cement paste.