The dependence of binocular contrast sensitivity on binocular single vision
This study involved the determination of the effects of binocular viewing on contrast sensitivities in 11 normal subjects and in different categories of amblyopes. These were simple anisometropic amblyopes (n=9), micro-esotropic amblyopes with anomalous BSV (n=6), esotropic amblyopes with anomalous BSV (n=3) esotropic without BSV 9n=5), exotropic amblyopes without BSV (n=2) and a group of non-amblyopic strabismics (non-amblyopic esotropes without BSV (n=4); non-amblyopic exotropes without BSV (n=2).An ophthalmic examination was carried out on all individuals. The examination procedures undertaken comprised determination of the visual acuity, subjective refraction, the results of which were confirmed by retinoscopy, and assessment of uniocular fixation patterns. The state of BSV, the direction and magnitude of the angle of deviation, the amplitude of accommodation and pupillary diameter were also determined. The subjects were accordingly placed into the appropriate groups on the basis of the basis of the results of the ophthalmic examination. Measurement of uniocular and binocular contrast sensitivities in response to stationary vertical sinusoidal grating patterns were undertaken. The stimulus display consisted of a Tektronix 5103 cathode ray tube (CRT) with a screen subtense of 2 degrees. Mean contrast threshold values were measured for monocular and binocular viewing over the range of spatial frequencies studied which varied between 8c/deg to 40c/deg depending on the group being examined. The conclusions reached were, first, in individuals with BSV (normal or anomalous), binocular enhancement of contrast sensitivities occurred. However, strabismic amblyopes without BSV and non-amblyopic strabismics without BSV did not exhibit enhanced binocular contrast sensitivities; on the contrary, binocular contrast sensitivities were reduced compared to those obtained through the better eye. Furthermore, when bifoveal stimulation was effected, a further reduction in binocular contrast sensitivity occurred. This study has thus shown that binocular contrast sensitivities are augmented compared with monocular contrast sensitivities when BSV is present, but are decreased when BSV is absent. Furthermore, correction of the angle of squint in strabismics, whether BSV is present or not, further reduces the binocular contrast sensitivities.