Characterisation of the main soil types in the Bursa province, Turkey
This study was made of classifying the soils and determining the heavy metal pollution of the soils and water resources in the Bursa province. Twelve profiles of five different soil type were examined and classified according to the systems of Fitzpatrick (1988), FAO/UNESCO (1974), and Soil Taxonomy (1975). This study includes chemical properties, physical properties, clay mineralogy, micromorphology and profile morphology. In addition eight Fluvisol and two Vertisol soil profiles were chosen from the irrigated areas of Bursa province to determine the chemical properties, available micronutrients and Cd concentrations. Heavy metals were determined in water samples collected from the Nilufer river and the Ayvali canal. These showed strong pollution by industrial activity. Evidence for Cd and Cu pollution was also found in the irrigated Fluvisols and Vertisols. A special problem was encountered in classifying the Luvisols. Profile 2. of the Luvisols was initially considered to be a Cambisols based on field characteristics but had to be reclassified as a Luvisol based on the micromorphological evidence. Further the other soils classified as Luvisols did not meet the clay increase criteria of FAO but were classified as Luvisols due to the high content of clay coatings in the B horizon. The results of this research show the problem of soil classification and have given valuable results for the heavy metal, Cd and Cu pollution in the water resources and the soils of Bursa province.