Development of the professions in Iraq.
The subject of this thesis is the establishment and development
of a professional middle class in Iraq, during the period from the
foundation of the new state 1921 to the last revolution of 1968. In less
than fifty years this new stratum was instrumental in transforming the
character of the country from a traditional, religious, to a modernizing
The main focus of the study is on the process whereby members of
the professions used their key position to achieve and consolidate political
power, in other words to enter the governing elite. The rise of the
professions was heavily dependent on the introduction of a Western system
of secular education to underpin the process of social, economic and
political change inaugurated under the British mandate, and therefore
particular attention is paid here to the creation of various institutions
of higher education.
The indicator selected is cabinet membership, and an analysis is
provided of the changing pattern of representation of the various professions
in successive governments. The professions considered are, in order of
importance, lawyers, doctors, engineers, university teachers, secondary
school teachers, civil servants as well as military class respectively.
Each of these professions is examined in detail on the basis of a
standardized scheme to enable comparisons to be made as regards for example
entry requirements, training, political activities, professional ethics,
organization. The data have been drawn from official statistics and
records, from professional governmental sources, and from observation.
An attempt has also been made to relate fluctuations in numbers, of
different professional groups to changes in social economic and political
conditions in the country, and to consider the possible basis for more
national professional manpower planning in the future.