China's established intellectuals : a sociological study of their participation in political campaigns (1949-1976)
This thesis examines the participation of China's established intellectuals in political campaigns during the period 1949-1976. This involves a sociological analysis of the historical background and current situation of China's established intellectuals, a systematic examination of the whole process of the continual campaigns launched by the CCP and Mao Zedong to criticise intellectuals or their works, and some detailed case studies of four distinguished established intellectuals. Based on these, the thesis attempts to show that (1) China's established intellectuals do not belong to a specific class, nor do they form an independent stratum, but instead, they are members of different classes or strata; (2) which classes and strata they are members of hinges more on their social position and political experience than on their own choices; (3) under the specific system operating in China, intellectuals have to be passive if they do not obtain high posts in the state/Party organs. The higher and more numerous posts they occupy, the more active and influential they are; and (4) intellectuals within the establishment essentially cannot avoid conflicts between the roles of the intellectual and the official. In brief, like other members of society, intellectuals are greatly tied to the social relations in which they are living and working, and their roles are largely decided by the social positions they obtain. In China, the fate of the intellectual in future will depend upon the development of society and changing social relations. The method used in this research is mainly documentary analysis.