On the advancement of science and technology among nations : the importance of government policies upon the development of advanced technology industries in five countries
The aims of this study were to compare the importance of government policies upon the development of advanced technology industries in five countries: France, West Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Japan. Three advanced technology industries were selected: microelectronics, machine tools and advanced materials. Data were collected from governments in the five countries, academia, independent research organizations, trade associations, industry and international organizations. The data were analyzed using statistical procedures and the results were related to classical and the "new" theories of comparative advantage determinants for the five countries. Critical analysis was also undertaken of the theories that postulate the role of government policies for industrial growth in the light of the rapid geographic diffusion of advanced technology sectors across national boundaries. As a result of these analyses the role of government policies upon the development of advanced technology industries was identified in the five countries. Analyses were undertaken to determine government policies that were successful and those that were not and the reasons for the success or failure of these policies in the light of economic, social, political and geographic factors.