Classical and quantum chaos of dynamical systems : rotating billiards
The theory of classical chaos is reviewed. From the definition of integrable systems using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the theory of perturbed systems is developed and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem is explained. It is shown how chaotic motion in Hamiltonian systems is governed by the in tricate connections of stable and unstable invariant manifolds, and how it can be catagorised by algorithmic complexity and symbolic dynamics, giving chaotic measures such as Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov entropy. Also reviewed is Gutzwiller's semiclassical trace formula for strongly chaotic systems, torus quantisation for integrable systems, the asymptotic level density for stationary billiards, and random matrix theories for describing spectral fluctuation properties. The classical theory is applied to rotating billiards, particularly the free motion of a particle in a circular billiard rotating uniformly in its own plane about a point on its edge. Numerically, it is shown that the system's classical behaviour ranges from fully chaotic at intermediate energies, to completely integrable at very low and very high energies. It is shown that the strong chaos is due to discontinuities in the Poincare map, caused by trajectories which just glance the boundary-an effect of the curvature of trajectories. Weaker chaos exists due to the usual folding and stretching of the Hamiltonian flow. Approximate invariant curves for integrable motion are found, valid far from the presence of glancing trajectories. The major structures of phase space are investigated: a fixed point and its bifurcation into a two-cycle, and their stabilities. Lyapunov exponents for trajectories are calculated and the chaotic volume for a wide range of energies is measured. Quantum mechanically, the energy spectrum of the system is found numerically. It is shown that at the energies where the classical system is completely integrable the levels do not repel, and at those energies where it is completely chaotic there is strong level repulsion. The nearest neighbour level spacing distributions for various ranges of energy and values of Planck's constant are found. In the semiclassical limit, it is shown that, for energies where the classical system is completely chaotic, the level spacing statistics are Wigner, and where it is completely integrable, the level spacing statistics are Poisson. A model is described for the spacing distributions where the levels can be either Wigner or Poisson, which is useful for showing the transition from one to the other, and ad equately describes the statistics. Theoretically, the asymptotic level density for rotating billiards is calculated, and this is compared with the numerical results with good agreement, after modification of the method to include all levels.