Energy management and conservation in the hotel industry of Cyprus : a systematic modelling approach
The present research has investigated the problem of energy management and conservation in the Hotel sector of Cyprus; one of the most important and most dynamic sectors of the island's economy. The methodology of the soft systems approach was considered as the most appropriate method for tackling the complexities involved in the problem situation. The outcome of the research demonstrated that the adoption of this methodology is suitable for investigating problems of energy management and conservation and can indeed be extended by use of "systemic" interactive computer simulation methods. The existing problem situation in the Hotel industry was investigated through design and execution of questionnaires addressed to the main human actors, energy audits, site visits, discussions and statistical analysis of energy related factors. Serious deficiencies were found at all levels. Energy consumption and use patterns were analysed with respect to quantity, quality and timing of energy use. Existing and new technologies were evaluated using life cycle cost-effective analysis methods. Evaluation of alternative energy supply "mixes" using computer simulation techniques were made, which demonstrated the viability of cogeneration, wind and solar collection approaches in some situations. The research concluded that: (a) there is good scope for energy conservation (in the range of 10-20%) by modifying user habits, hotel energy demand, remodeling of existing technology and introduction of new energy efficient technology. (b) there is an immediate need to provide training and education to all human factors involved. (c) there is a need to modify existing energy-policies. (d) there is need to introduce new energy management infrastructure at National level and below. (e) there is real need for changing the attitudes towards energy conservation of all "actors" involved. (f) there is need for further investigation of the energy supply and demand patterns of hotels. Recommendations concerning the introduction of training and education, and changes in policy, attitudes, practice and energy use, and infrastructure are made. All recommendations are based on conceptual models developed following the application of the soft systems methodology.