The intrigues of the German government and the Ghadr party against British rule in India : 1914-1918.
In 1913 a new Indian revolutionary movement, known as the
Ghadr party, was founded in the United States. It was a coalition
of middle class Indians, several of whom were established
revolutionaries, and Sikh workers who had settled in the United
States and Canada from around 1905. The latter had become
discontented because of the discriminatory nature of Canadian
immigration legislation and their revolutionary enthusiasm was
aroused in 1914 when the Canadians prevented the entry of Indians
from the Komagata NIaru. In August 1914 large numbers of Ghadrites
left North America to start a revolution in the Punjab, but the
Indian authorities had been forewarned and many were interned under
the Ingress Ordinance. Plans for a revolution continued and a
projected rising in February 1915 was thwarted by police action.
The Ghadrites failed because of their weak organisation and their
inability to win popular support. They were more successful in
gaining adherents in the army, though the army mutiny in Singapore
in February 1915 was due more to tensions within the regiment
involved. The Germans formed an alliance with the Ghadrites and
other revolutionaries in Bengal and Europe, whom they vainly
attempted to arm with munitions from America and the Philippines.
In the East Indies help was given to the Bengali revolutionaries
and plans made to raid the Andaman Islands, while in Siam there was
a plot to invade Burma and from Turkey and Afghanistan there were
attempts to influence Indian Muslims. All these plans failed.
They resulted in the strengthening of extraordinary legislation in India and the growth of a British intelligence system in the east.
Later in the war the Germans and revolutionaries hoped to regain
the initiative by influencing Japan. This also failed, though it
helped to sour Anglo-Japanese relations.