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Title: Poverty in Manila : concepts, measurements and experiences.
Author: Schelzig, Karin Mara.
Awarding Body: London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Current Institution: London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Date of Award: 1999
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This thesis constructs a detailed anatomy of poverty in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, by critically examining and comparing a) the government's official statistics, b) alternatives to the official statistics offered by NGOs and academic researchers, and c) the results of an original household survey carried out in PNR Bangkal, one of Manila's many informal settlements. The research seeks to develop a more appropriate, multidimensional and participatory concept of poverty for Manila than the purely money-metric approach applied by the government. The official methodology results in very low, falling, and seemingly unrealistic poverty levels for this Southeast Asian megacity with its attendant problems. According to official statistics, poverty dropped from 23% of families in 1985 to 7.1% in 1997. The thesis raises questions about the assumptions that inform these measures. For example, the official surveys do not include in their sample people without official and permanent residence. As they tend to reside in informal settlements, the poorest are thus almost certainly excluded. Highlighting the multidimensional nature of deprivation, the primary research in PNR Bangkal was based on a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to the study of poverty. Questionnaires were completed for 155 households, or one third of the population of the settlement. These were then followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with five respondents in order to enrich the survey data. The study included but went beyond income and expenditure analysis. The survey results were analysed using an asset vulnerability framework. Findings include an 'official' poverty incidence of 36% of families and a self-perceived poverty incidence of 79%. The survey also revealed high levels of deprivation and vulnerability related to labour, housing, human capital, and social capital.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Philippines; Statistics; Deprivation; Slums