Fabrication and application of short and novel structure in-fibre Bragg gratings
This thesis presents details on progress made in the fabrication and application of short and novel structure fibre Bragg gratings. The basic theoretical concepts of in-fibre Bragg gratings and photosensitive mechanisms are introduced together with an overview of fabrication methods and applications presented to date. The fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings using a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser is presented and some of the issues of grating fabrication using a fabrication using a phasemask are investigated, including the variation of the separation of the fibre and phasemask, and other alignment issues. A new apodisation technique is presented, enabling the production of gratings with a wide range of spectral profiles. The technique is used to investigate the design and fabrication of length limited fibre Bragg gratings for use in telecommunication systems as filters. Application to devices designed for use in WDM systems is presented. The use of fibre Bragg gratings as high spatial resolution distributed sensors is investigated. Grating sensing arrays comprising very short apodised gratings are demonstrated and Chirped Moiré gratings are implemented as distributed sensors achieving high spatial resolution with miniature point sensing sub-elements. A novel grating sensing element designed to imitate an interferometer is also presented. Finally, the behaviour of gratings fabricated in Boron-Germania-co-doped fibre is investigated, revealing atypical behaviour of the Bragg wavelength during ageing.