Demand side management within a regional electricity company
The work presented in this thesis concerns itself with the application of Demand Side Management (DSM) by industrial subsector as applied to the UK electricity industry. A review of the origins of DSM in the US and the relevance of experience gained to the UK electricity industry is made. Reviews are also made of the current status of the UK electricity industry, the regulatory system, and the potential role of DSM within the prevalent industry environment. A financial appraisal of DSM in respect of the distribution business of a Regional Electricity Company (REC) is also made. This financial appraisal highlights the economic viability of DSM within the context of the current UK electricity industry. The background of the work presented above is then followed by the construction of a framework detailing the necessary requirements for expanding the commercial role of DSM to encompass benefits for the supply business of a REC. The derived framework is then applied, in part, to the UK ceramics manufacturing industry, and in full to the UK sanitaryware manufacturing industry. The application of the framework to the UK sanitaryware manufacturing industry has required the undertaking of a unique first-order energy audit of every such manufacturing site in the UK. As such the audit has revealed previously unknown data on the timings and magnitude of electricity demand and consumption attributable to end-use manufacturing technologies and processes. The audit also served to reveal the disparity in the attitudes toward energy services, and thus by implication towards DSM, of manufacturers within the same Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. In response to this, attempt is made to identify the underlying drivers which could cause this variation in attitude. A novel approach to the market segmentation of the companies within the UK ceramics manufacturing sector has been utilised to classify these companies in terms of their likelihood to participate in DSM programmes through the derived Energy Services approach. The market segmentation technique, although requiring further development to progress from a research based concept, highlights the necessity to look beyond the purely energy based needs of manufacturing industries when considering the utilisation of the Energy Services approach to facilitate DSM programs.