Restructuring local governance : innovation and cooperation in place promotion
Over the last quarter of a century, the nature and balance of the policies pursued by local government, and the ways in which local government pursues them, have changed considerably. In the face of technological advance, deindustrialisation, global restructuring and intensified competition, local authorities have had to become proactively engaged in promoting their assets and competing for much sought after investment. As such, it is widely acknowledged that there has been a reorientation in local government away from an emphasis on social service provision and social welfare, towards an emphasis on economic growth, economic development and policies designed to enhance economic competitiveness. This reorientation has been accompanied by changes in how these policies are delivered and by whom, and is classically referred to as the shift from managerialism to entrepreneurialism. For example, place promotional strategies have been delivered by an ever wider array of public, quasi-public and private sector agencies. Characterised by tile prioritisation of local economic development, most notably via the adoption of' place promotional strategies, and an institutional shift from public sector government to public-private governance, the shift to entrepreneurialism has fundamentally changed the way places are governed. It is widely perceived therefore that place promotion is integral to the process of contemporary governance, and yet despite this, few commentators have sought to specify the form of local governance arrangements that have developed in support of place promotion, or examine the relationship between place promotion and governance. These themes are developed in this thesis through a postal questionnaire survey of British local authorities and two case studies in Newcastle upon Tyne and Leeds. In general, the prominent role of local authorities within these new governance arrangements is highlighted, together with the complex and distinctive nature of the shift to entrepreneurialism in particular places.