Hydrogen bonding in organic systems : a study using X-ray and neutron diffraction and database analyses
This thesis covers three topics related to the field of crystal engineering. Three different approaches to improving the understanding of hydrogen bonding are covered; analysis of a family of related molecules, investigations of specific functional groups and a systematic, data-driven study of intramolecular hydrogen bonding patterns. Chapters 2 to 4 and chapter 11 cover the background theory to the different methods used to obtain the data discussed in the remainder of the thesis. X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques are discussed, along with sections describing the Cambridge Structural Database, which was used as a data source throughout this work, and a brief section on intermolecular forces. Crystal structure analyses of seventeen gem-alkynol molecules are given in chapters 5 to 10. The gem-alkynol functionality is particularly interesting for a study of intermolecular interactions as it is a combination of both a strong and weak hydrogen bonding group. The group of molecules was investigated with the aim of locating robust supramolecular motifs. The group is subdivided into sections containing molecules with similar structures and their packing patterns are discussed. The second experimental section, chapters 12 and 13, comprises statistical studies into the function of the azido and cyano functional groups as hydrogen bond acceptors. The technique used was to use the Cambridge Structural Database as a data source for the main analysis, then complement the results with simple theoretical calculations. The remaining chapter, 14, describes a systematic analysis of intermolecular hydrogen bonded motifs. A data-driven approach was designed which allows direct comparison of motifs by means of a probability ordered list.