Internal architecture, facies distribution and reservoir modelling of the Cingöz deepwater clastic system in southern Turkey
Recent discoveries of hydrocarbons within reservoirs deposited within ancient deepwater clastic systems has necessitate further studies into this sedimentary environment. The aim of such studies is to gather information about the internal heterogeneities within submarine fans. This Ph.D. study focuses on such heterogeneities within an exposed, Miocene aged, sand-rich deep-marine system, the Cingöz Formation deposited within the Adana Basin in southern Turkey. A quantitative and qualitative sedimentological study into geometry, spatial and temporal variations in internal architecture and facies distributions has been undertaken. The study area is divided into two regions, the eastern and western areas of the Cingöz Fan, previously interpreted as representing two coeval and separated submarine fans, but interpreted as a single deepwater clastic system within this study. The eastern areas are sourced from at least four feeder channels. Channels display multiple phases of infilling, facies that indicate deposition from fan deltas that pass upward into deep water turbidities. Variations in the internal architecture and channel-floor gradient within a seven km depositional-dip section of one of these channels indicates changes in hydraulic conditions with complex inter-relationship between turbulence, erosion, gradient and confinement of the turbidity currents. The western areas display landward to basinward facies changes from fluvial, alluvial fan, fan delta and deep-marine fan environments. This area of the submarine fan is sourced via a single, 4 km wide and 9 km long, topographically controlled fairway. This conduit displays multiple phases of infilling on a variety of scales, indicating pulses of sediment supply. Sediment is deposited basinwards of the fairway, initially in elongate, 0.3-1 km wide and at least 15 km long, tongue-shaped bodies that are both vertically and offset stacked and separated by packages of siltstone.