Water resources and water demand management for arid and semi-arid areas : West Bank as a case study
A water resources and water demand management model has been developed applicable to locations which experience specific constraints such as rapid population growth, limited water resources and political disputes over water resources. The West Bank was chosen as a case study. The Research has suggested a paradigm for a comprehensive management framework for large-scale water management problems in and and semi-arid areas. This management framework can help to achieve sustainable water resources for meeting water demand and preventing the gridlock and excessive legal expense of uncoordinated and conflict-filled decision processes. The attributes of management frameworks (some well known and others not so familiar) begin with inclusion; that is, the framework should be comprehensive, with extensive stakeholder involvement and collaboration. The decision processes should be clear, action oriented, and adaptive. Other desirable qualities of the framework include a focus on environmental integrity, technical aspects, financial aspects, social implications, institutional aspects, political implications and use of proven management practices. Today's international legislative structure is incapable of solving complex water disputes. The Research has introduced one such multi-criteria decision tool for quantification of water resources rights. For illustrative purposes, it was presented in terms of the water-sharing problem facing Israel and the Palestinians. The methodology is based upon the several factors identified by the International Law Commission in its draft articles on the non-navigational uses of water.