The fallen woman in twentieth-century English and Brazilian novels : a comparative analysis of D.H. Lawrence and Jorge Amado
This thesis offers a thematic comparison of the ways in which fallen women are depicted by two writers: D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930) and Jorge Amado (1912- ). The comparison highlights the contrasts and similarities between two cultures and how they are reflected in literature. The focus of the thesis is on an examination of unconventional female characters and it illuminates more generally the ways in which literary creativity is shaped by the interaction between writers and their social milieus. The theme of the fallen woman provokes discussion of changing patterns of sexuality in two different societies, in two different periods of their historical development. It also involves the question of the social, political and cultural background of both England and Brazil, where these images of the fallen women were fabricated. The thesis argues that both Lawrence and Amado share tremendous sympathy for these women. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. Chapters Two through Six are divided into two parts. The analysis in Part One involves a number of Lawrence's novels: The White Peacock, Sons and Lovers, The Lost Girl, Aaron's Rod, Mr. Noon, `Sun', and three versions of Lady Chatterley's Lover. Part Two looks at the fallen woman in Amado's writing from 1934 to 1977, and the discussion focuses on Jubiabä, Terras do sem fim, Gabriela, cravo e canela, Dona Flor e seus dois maridos, Tereza Batista cansada de guerra and Tieta do Agreste. Female desire and its fulfilment in an unconventional way has been a central question in all these novels. Without a moral judgement, both Lawrence and Amado depict the female characters who are triumphant lovers, redeemed from the sense of sin or guilt by their passion. The depiction of these women highlights the class and gender differences. Both writers show how patriarchy plays a dominant role in keeping female sexuality under control in both English and Brazilian societies.