Reducing the computational effort associated with evolutionary optimisation in single component design
The dissertation presents innovative Evolutionary Search (ES) methods for the reduction in computational expense associated with the optimisation of highly dimensional design spaces. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system which successfully negotiates complex search spaces. Such a system would be highly desirable to a human designer by providing optimised design solutions in realistic time. The design domain represents a real-world industrial problem concerning the optimal material distribution on the underside of a flat roof tile with varying load and support conditions. The designs utilise a large number of design variables (circa 400). Due to the high computational expense associated with analysis such as finite element for detailed evaluation, in order to produce "good" design solutions within an acceptable period of time, the number of calls to the evaluation model must be kept to a minimum. The objective therefore is to minimise the number of calls required to the analysis tool whilst also achieving an optimal design solution. To minimise the number of model evaluations for detailed shape optimisation several evolutionary algorithms are investigated. The better performing algorithms are combined with multi-level search techniques which have been developed to further reduce the number of evaluations and improve quality of design solutions. Multi-level techniques utilise a number of levels of design representation. The solutions of the coarse representations are injected into the more detailed designs for fine grained refinement. The techniques developed include Dynamic Shape Refinement (DSR), Modified Injection Island Genetic Algorithm (MiiGA) and Dynamic Injection Island Genetic Algorithm (DiiGA). The multi-level techniques are able to handle large numbers of design variables (i.e. > 100). Based on the performance characteristics of the individual algorithms and multi-level search techniques, distributed search techniques are proposed. These techniques utilise different evolutionary strategies in a multi-level environment and were developed as a way of further reducing computational expense and improve design solutions. The results indicate a considerable potential for a significant reduction in the number of evaluation calls during evolutionary search. In general this allows a more efficient integration with computationally intensive analytical techniques during detailed design and contribute significantly to those preliminary stages of the design process where a greater degree of analysis is required to validate results from more simplistic preliminary design models.