Thin layered systems for the repair and protection of concrete structures
Thin layered systems can be considered as a solution to the repair and protection of concrete structures. This subject was studied in the current investigation. Some common uses of these systems include protection, upgrading and rehabilitation of the floor slabs,restoration of appearance of the structures, impermeability, skid resistance, wear resistance, and protection of the reinforcing steel of concrete structures against atmospheric or chemical attack. However it can be said that protection, upgrading and rehabilitation of floor slabs are the main uses for the design of modem thin layered systems. For example a thin layer of a polymer concrete with a thickness of less than 3 nun can resist a very highly concentrated load resulting from a steel wheel rolling load of 5000 N without any sign of defect. Thin layer systems therefore include traditional screeds, externally bonded steel plates, plasters and coatings as well as the more recent hi - tech. systems. Like any other structure, a thin layered system may break down as the result of many causes. Among other types of failures, delamination defect is the most common mode of failure and particularly relevant to a thin layered system. This phenomenon which mostly occur between the upper layer directly subjectedto the load and the subsequent layer, is due to debonding or slippage at the interface of the two layers. A delamination may occur at the interface of a thin layered system even without any sign of failure in other parts of the structure. Steel wheeled trolleys and fork - lift trucks are among the most anticipated types of loading and causes of failures in the thin layered systems. Different combinations of thin layered systems were prepared using some special flooring materials, both in small and large scales. Despite the lack of any standard test, the action of a steel wheel rolling load on the ready made and purpose made specimens of thin layered systems was well simulated using the Steel Wheel Rolling Load Rig. The NUROLF, Newcastle University Rolling Load Facility, was also used for simulating the action of a tyred vehicle wheel rolling load on the thin layered systems of large scale. Some simple ways for detecting any possible delamination at the interface of the thin layered systems were examined. In addition to the available material characteristics tests, a relatively new simple shear box test was proposed for defming the relationship between normal stress and the correspondings hear strength for each combination of the materials at each age of the test. The results were then used as the basis for the subsequent structural analysis. The structural analysis of the systems was carried out for both of the experiments using the finite element method and the interface technique. In spite of the simplifications made in the solution, the analytical results were consistent with the experimental results to a considerable extent. Based on the results of this investigation, a relatively constitutive procedure was concluded for predicting the behaviour of a thin layered system under the action of a wheel rolling load with regard to the delamination defect.