Energy budget and aspects of energy metabolism in common carp, Cyprinus carpio
Aspects of the resting respiration rate, specific dynamic action (SDA) and components of the total energy budget of 55 - 80g common carp were studied in the laboratory. The resting respiratory rate was monitored in computer operated metabolic chambers under different photoperiods. Common carp showed a crepuscular respiratory rhythm with peaks at dawn and dusk during a 12L : 12D photoperiod, with a mean oxygen consumption of 152 mg/kg/h. When acclimated to longer or shorter photoperiods respiration was also cyclic but with a lower mean respiratory rate. In continuous light or darkness respiratory rhythm was suppressed with no significant peakings. In carp fed with three diets containing 20,35 and 50% protein at a ration level of 0.40 to 1.00% body weight per day, SDA coefficient varied from 8.99 to 15.94% and was dependent on dietary protein but not on ration levels. SDA magnitude and post-feeding peak oxygen consumption varied significantly with both dietary protein content and total daily ration level. SDA duration was only related to ration size. The pattern of food energy allocation between the major components of the energy budget varied with dietary protein content and ration levels. The energy lost as heat of metabolism was found to increase with dietary protein level and total ration. Energy lost as faeces 'F' varied from 19 - 24% of 'C' and did not appear to be related to either protein content or ration levels. Nitrogenous excretion increased with an increase of dietary protein but decreased with an increase of ration level in the diet. Regression equations were developed from the data to allow prediction of respiratory energy loss 'R', faecal energy loss 'F' and energy lost through excretion 'U' from the food ingested V. Complete energy budget models compiled from experiments conducted over a 17 days period and using different diets did not successfully predict the actual growth. The energy budget balance was between 66.04% and 81.96%. Observed growth was less than predicted growth in every trial and it is suggested that this difference might have been due to short-term cyclic growth regulation and other minor experimental features. The data presented form the basis for the first reported study of total energy budgets in Cyprinus carpio.