Some studies of frictional properties of fabrics
The frictional (fricative) properties of some 23 fabrics are reported. These properties include frictional resistance, amplitude of resistance, number of peaks, difference between static and kinetic frictional resistance in addition to coefficients of friction, all determined by trace analysis. Some assessments of properties of subjective handle likely to be related to objective measurements are also reported, for example fabric smoothness or roughness. The work is reported in series of case studies. Firstly a general survey is made in order to demonstrate the likely range of properties, and the effects of experimental variables such as pressure, velocity of sliding, nature of sled surface, number of traverses. Secondly, a series of plain weave fabrics is used whose density of consolidation is systematically increased by increasing the picks per unit distance. Thirdly, the fricative resistance of a group of woven pile (cord) fabrics is measured with the purpose of demonstrating the sensitivity and selectivity of methods of measurement which include a roller, stylus, lateral air flow as well as the conventional fabric covered sled. Fourthly, a series of knitted fabrics is used whose fibre content and construction differs systematically. For example they include cotton, wool and acrylic fibres, and are constructed as plain knit or rib knit. Fifthly, the effects of various physical and chemical modifications of knitted and woven fabrics are illustrated. These treatements include those designed to increase fricttional resistance such as starch and silica, or reduce friction such as polyethylene glycol. By these case studies the relative influence of fibre content, fabric structure and also finishing treatments on fabric friction and handle are demonstrated.