Design and performance of resonant cavities for communication systems : the theory and performance of resonant cavities for application in mobile radio and base-stations in the VHF and UHF bands are investigated
It is often necessary to operate a number of radio communication channels from a single control room without time-sharing between the various channels. Here it is necessary to operate a number of transmitters and receivers simultaneously from the same base station or mobile unit without interference. The best method to achieve this has been found in the use of filters inserted in the transmission line between the antenna and the transmitter(s) on one hand and the receiver(s) on the other hand. The basic unit employed in the design of microwave filters is usually a cavity resonator of which the most important factors are the Q, insertion loss and resonant frequency. However, a problem which frequently arises with cavity resonators is the accurate determination of these resonant characteristics complicated by the presence of coupling port, materials and various design and geometrical deviations. Such cavities have been investigated in several cases and the results have been generalised, but this investigation has been conducted to examine thoroughly most of the problems being met in present practice. Design and development of some common resonant structures are considered. Emphasis is placed on solutions found to special problems especially regarding complicated boundary conditions. Furthermore, investigation includes methods for optimising resonant parameters such as insertion loss and Q, trading of insertion loss with coupled cavity selectivity, frequency tuning and compensation for frequency variations due to wide ranges of operating temperatures. By comparing Q values obtained in practice with theoretical values, it has been possible to establish an appropriate Q loss budget to as to facilitate accurate prediction of coupled cavity unloaded Q. A satisfactory agreement between theory and practice has been obtained. By application of the results of theoretical analysis and experiment, it is shown that microwave filters can be designed to have a desired insertion loss and off-band attenuation slope. Steps leading to designs of any number of cascaded cavities in a two-port network and, subsequently, multi-port networks are discussed in detail.